Mu Koh Similan National Park
For Similans Diving
The stunning Similan Islands with their tropical jungle beauty, white, sandy beaches and turquoise waters are understandably Thailand's most popular dive destination. The granite islands which make up the Similan National Marine Park provide gorgeous coral reefs peppered with rainbow coloured fish as well as deep water boulder formations that attract large pelagic fish such as whale sharks and manta rays. The dive sites here offer something for every experience level.
Liveaboard diving excursions to these islands are extremely popular with scuba divers from all over the world, as they provide a good standard of accommodation along with well-organised cruises and highly-trained staff. They are also very affordable!
Mu Koh Similan National Park was established in 1982 and is located along the western coastline of the Andaman Sea in the Indian Ocean, about 100 km northwest of Phuket. The park area covers 140 km², 16 km² of which is land, composed of 9 granite islands created by upwellings of hot magma during the Tertiary-Cretaceous Period some 65 million years ago, then smoothed by glacial ice and the wave action of the sea.
Similan is really the Malaysian word for 'nine', as there are 9 islands in the island group. The islands are named Koh Huyong, Koh Payang, Koh Payan, Koh Miang, Koh Ha, Koh Payu, Koh Pusa, Koh Similan and Koh Bangru but are often simply referred to by a number 1 through to 9. A popular game on the Thailand dive boats is to argue over which island represents which number. In 1998 the park boundary was expanded to cover Koh Tachai and Koh Bon, 2 islands to the north of the Similan group. There also 2 exposed rock pinnacles called Hin San Chalam (Shark Fin Rock) and Hin Koh Ha.
The Similans are islands of high and steep granite mountains with beaches and rock formations. The shoreline features inconsistently curved rocks worn away by direct wave action. The islands are covered in tropical jungle and the beaches have no mud, giving them some of Thailand's finest white sand beaches. The highest point, on Koh Similan is 244m above mean sea level. The seas around the islands are surrounded by coral reefs.
The distinctive granite boulder formations on the surface continue underwater on the west coast of the islands creating the dramatic underwater seascapes that scuba divers love. However, what makes the area unique, at least from a diver's point of view, is that around on the east coast of the islands there is a different environment. Here are white powder-sand beaches that slope down from the water's surface to about 40 metres, and feature coral gardens all the way down. The distance from the mainland and the lack of any real inhabitants on the islands keeps the water crystal clear.
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Flora and Fauna
Beneath the Andaman Sea surface at Mu Koh Similan National Park lies a complex ecosystem. The major residents of the reef are corals and the closely related sea anemones; of the phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, which contains all radially symmetrical invertebrate animals. Corals and sea anemones exist as individual polyps living in either solitary or mostly colonial forms. The polyps of hard corals construct communal limestone homes which are built up into a multitude of shapes and sizes eventually giving rise to a coral reef.
Several factors support a good environment for a coral reef, i.e. temperature, salinity, light, wave and tide, sedimentation and nutrients. In the Andaman Sea, coral reefs are classified as deep water and medium water. Deep water coral reefs can grow down to 30 metres, and the Similan dive sites have these reefs in abundance because of the clarity of water which allows sunlight to penetrate deeper. Medium water coral reefs grow between 8-15 metres beneath the surface. The deep water hard corals found in the Similan Islands are of mostly staghorn coral types (Acropora echinata) and the smaller cauliflower shaped types (Seriatopora histrix).
The park is not only of interest to divers, it's also popular with bird watchers. Most bird watchers who make the trip to Koh Similan do so to see the Nicobar pigeons which are seldom seen elsewhere. They are often seen foraging around the campsite on Koh Miang (island number 4). Other highlights are the close up views and large numbers of pied imperial pigeons, and regular sightings of white-bellied sea eagles. Another commonly seen species is the collared kingfisher. A survey conducted in 1992 revealed that 39 species of birds can be found on the 9 islands. Resident species include the Brahminy kite and the white-breasted waterhen, while migratory species include the pintail snipe and grey wagtail. Temporary migratory species include the barn swallow, cattle egret, watercock and the roseate tern.
Natural fresh water reserves are few, and as a result, large mammal species cannot survive. However, surveys have revealed that 27 species of small mammals exist within the park, including 16 species of bats including the black-bearded tomb bat, the lesser false vampire bat, the intermediate horseshoe bat, the lesser bent-winged bat, and the hairless bat. 3 species of squirrels can be found including the grey-cheeked flying squirrel. 4 species of rats - the yellow Rajah rat, the rice-field rat, roof rat and noisy rat can be seen scurrying around as well.
The more unusual but fairly common residents include the bush tailed porcupine, common palm civet, flying lemur and bottlenose dolphins. 22 species of reptiles and amphibians can be found at the Similans including the banded krait, reticulated python, white-lipped pit viper, common pit viper, blue garden lizard, hawksbill turtle, green turtle, Bengal monitor lizard, common water monitor lizard, ornate froglet, common Asiatic frog, marsh frog, and the common bush frog. A reminder that you are never far from water is the hairy-leg mountain land crab. This crab is found in large numbers all over the islands.
The Similan forests can be divided into 3 main types:
Beach Forest - open forest with scattered plants at an approximate height of not over 15 metres such as Terminalia catappa, Barringtonia asiatica and Callophyllum inophyllum. Small perennials and large shrubs not exceeding 10 metres in height found are Xylocarpus gaugeticus, Herltiera littoralis and Hibiscus tiliaceus. Smaller shrub found are Capparis micracautha, Breynia vitris-idaea, Fischer and Pandanus odoratissimus. Grounds covering plants common in the area are beans, Vigna sp., Spilanthes sp., Ischaemum barbatum, Lophatherum gracile, Hoya parasittrica and Asplenium nidus.
Scrub Forest - habitat for shrubs which can develop on grounds with soil depth of not exceeding 30 cm. A few cacti can be found while more common shrubs found are Cercus spp., Dracaena spp., Memecylon caeruleum and Cleistanhus polyphyllus.
Primary Forest - habitation for perennials at a height of 20 metres or above such as Dipterocarpus costatus, Dipterocarpus boudii, Shores spp. Lower perennials at 15-20 metres in height are palaquium obovatum, Eugenia denaiflora, Wrightia sp.; 10-15 metres in height are Hydnocarpus ilicifolius, Semecarpus curtisii, Diospyros wallichii. Bambusa sp., Calamus longisetus and Palm. Amydrium medium and Bauhinia glauca are also found with other creepers and parasites such as betel pepper, bauhinia and orchid.
Above the water line surrounding each island lies beach forest, which gradually becomes tropical forest further inland.
The most unique vegetation found in the Similans are sapodilla and Nguang Chang Talay, while edible plants are Manilkara sp., Toumefotia argentia, Bouea oppositifolio, Lepisanthes rubiginosa, Diospyros wallichii, Neang and Copparis micracantha. Important tree species include Manilkara sp. Cordia subcordia, and Tournefotia argentia.
The collecting of corals or shells is forbidden in the park and there is a 'hands off the coral' policy. These policies are only instigated by the dive industry itself, which is mainly self-regulated and does a better job of educating divers and keeping them off the reef, than in many other areas of Asia.
Environmental protection is less than perfect in Thailand, and it's a relatively new concept here. However, the level of protection is ahead of many other South East Asian countries. There are government education programmes regarding destructive fishing techniques such as dynamiting. Dynamite fishing is virtually unheard of in these waters now although drag net fishing is still an issue.
There is a turtle hatchery programme on Similan Island No. 1 which is closed to visitors, and a number of other dive sites are made off-limits each season to promote unhindered coral growth. One of the Similan parks best features is that all sites have several mooring buoys, laid by the Thai Royal Navy, so there is never any reason for boats to drop anchor on the reef. These are all positives at a time when scuba diver numbers visiting the park are increasing each year.
Remoteness has kept the Koh Similan Islands unspoilt for many years. The distance from the mainland and from Phuket Island had limited visitors to those willing to travel overnight by boat. But faster and large-engine vessels are allowing more and more day-trippers to visit the park. Fortunately rough seas during the May - October monsoon season make the islands too dangerous to reach most of the time, and officially the park is closed to divers during those months. Isn't the park closed to fishing boats during those months too? Good question.
On 26th December 2004, a huge Tsunami that originated off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia swept across the Andaman Sea. The freak wave caused devastation in many coastal areas. An often asked question is 'How were the Similan Islands affected by the Tsunami?'
Approximately 100 research officers from the Department of Marine and Coastal Resources and many other organisations, including several southern universities, institutes and the National Parks Wildlife and Plant Department, with the cooperation of more than 120 volunteer divers, participated in an assessment of the impact of tsunami on marine resources in January 2005. Their results concluded that the degree of damage to the corals depended on the geography of the islands, location and morphology of the coral reefs, as well as water depth, which promoted or protected reefs in certain areas from the effects of the tsunami. In general it is agreed that the coral reefs escaped very lightly in most areas, much more lightly than was originally feared. The areas that were damaged continue to be monitored to assess their recovery.
A short term management plan suggested that restricted status areas be designated for heavily impacted areas such as southwest of island number 7 and the northern part of island number 8. Other initiatives included repositioning upturned corals, under the supervision of a marine biologist, and reef debris collection. Longer term management plans include the implementation of a coral reef monitoring programme, assessing the marine parks tourist carrying capacity (quota restrictions are often talked about, but remain unimplemented) and public conservation awareness. A more detailed assessment of the Tsunami's impact can be read here: Environmental Impact Assessment.
The climate in the Similan Islands is tropical and the temperature is warm all year round. Summer begins in mid February and ends in May. Rainy season starts from mid May and lasts until October, with north-westerly winds blowing, and the national park is officially closed from 16 May - 15 November. The Andaman Sea can sometimes be quite rough during this time with large waves so Similan diving cruises are not offered at this time.
The hottest months are usually April and May when the average temperatures range from 30 to 36°C. Average annual temperature is 27°C with average of humidity approximately 83% all year round. Average annual rainfall is measured at 3,560 mm with an evaporation rate of 1,708 mm per year.
The High Season for tourism in this part of Thailand runs from November to April. Probably the best time to visit the dive sites of the Similan Islands is between February and April as you're assured of great weather and calm seas, plus there'll be a few less tourists!
Around the Similan Islands
Things to Do
Most people travel to the Similans for the snorkelling or scuba diving. However, there are opportunities to enjoy bird watching and a jungle walk on 2 islands.
Koh Similan (Island 8), at 5 km² the largest island, offers a trek up to a viewpoint providing great views of the island chain, and a walking trail. Here you can also find Donald Duck Bay, so-called as the granite rock formations look similar to the famous cartoon character. There is an unused lighthouse, built by Thai Royal Navy which visitors may climb to with park ranger permission. The climb is not an easy one but the views are superb. Koh Pusa is the smallest island, only really an exposed rock. It is commonly referred to as Hin Hua Chang (Elephant Head Rock).
Koh Miang, also known as Island No. 4, is the 2nd biggest island and is home to the park headquarters. This island boasts the best wildlife watching opportunities in the Similan National Park. Here you can find 2 beautiful white, sandy beaches on either side of the island connected by a walking trail through the tropical jungle. Inland you may well spot a Nicobar pigeon or a hairy-leg mountain land crab. This crab species is called Pu Kai in Thai, which means 'Chicken Crab' because it makes a noise like a young chick.
The Similan Islands are found in the Andaman Sea about 65 km offshore from Phang Nga province and 100 km from Phuket Island on the Thai-Malay peninsula. If you are embarking on a liveaboard cruise boat then you don't need the info in this section as transport to and from your boat will be arranged for you.
To get to the Similans, you can take a boat from Tap Lamu Pier, 60 km north of Phuket airport and 10 km south of Khao Lak.
VIP A/C buses run daily from Bangkok's southern bus terminal direct to Khao Lak and you can then jump in a taxi to take you to Tap Lamu Pier. There are also buses from Bangkok to Phang Nga Town and from there take another bus the remaining 65 kilometres to Tap Lamu junction which is 5 km from the pier. Take a taxi the rest of the way.
From Phuket, you can get a bus from the Phuket Town bus terminal to Khao Lak and get off at the Tap Lamu Pier junction, south of Khao Lak.
The nearest airport to Tap Lamu is Phuket International Airport. There are direct flights to/from Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia, and Bangkok - Thailand. From the airport take a taxi the approximately 60 km north to Tap Lamu. If you'd like more information on how to get to Phuket, please read our Phuket travel information section.
There are private tour boats that run daily from Tap Lamu Port to Mu Koh Similan National Park station on island number 4, approximate distance of 70 km. The boats leave at 8:30 am and the journey takes 3½-4 hours. The return boats depart at 1 pm and 3 pm daily. This service is closed during the low season from May to November each year.
Places to Stay
Koh Miang is the main island that provides overnight accommodation. This comprises 25 air conditioned bungalows which are run by the national park department, and they are very popular during the high season. There is a small restaurant here serving mainly Thai food but other than that, there are no bars or nightlife on the islands. This is the place to come for peace and quiet and enjoy the nature.
The Thai National Park Authority maintains a park ranger station on Koh Similan which also has basic bungalow accommodation and some tents for rent. There is a short walking trail here and another shorter one on Koh Miang. Koh Tachai also has a camping area with restroom facilities. You can make reservations for all these up to 60 days in advance with the national park headquarters by calling +66 (0)2 5620760.
There is also a Royal residence of the Thai Princess on Koh Miang which is heavily guarded by the Royal Thai Navy whenever she feels like dropping in for a visit.
There are plenty of long tail boats available to transport you between the islands. You can expect to pay:
- Island 4 to Island 6 (3 km): US$ 4 per person
- Island 4 to Island 8 (11.5 km): US$ 6 per person
- Island 4 to Island 9 (13.5 km): US$ 9 per person
- Around Island 8 and Island 9: US$ 9 per person
Don't forget that most visitors arrive at the Similans on a liveaboard cruise which includes all transport between the islands.